Wooden brackets offer a wide variety of style and decor in the shape of a crow or a grasshopper with wings or fixed, they are characterised by a setting that combines floral painted or carved, with grooves. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. Les décorateurs ont donc eu recours à des figures géométriques répétées à l'infini et de couleurs variées. Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived[31] are Al-Bakri (Andalusian geographer and historian who died in 1094 and who devoted a sufficiently detailed account of the history of the mosque in his book Description of Septentrional Africa), Al-Nuwayri (historian who died in Egypt, 1332) and Ibn Nagi (scholar and historian of Kairouan who died around 1435). [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. Au milieu du xixe siècle, la ville de Kairouan (Madînat al-Qayrawân) était formée de six quartiers dont la moitié était située intra-muros. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art. 1. Abstract. [7] The fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and expand. Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in the year 50 AH (670AD/CE) at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque occupies an area of over 9,000 square metres (97,000 sq ft). [64], Enlightened by impressive chandeliers which are applied in countless small glass lamps,[65] the nave opens into the south portico of the courtyard by a monumental delicately carved wooden door, made in 1828 under the reign of the Husainids. [52][57], View of the second and third storeys of the minaret, Close view of one of the Roman stones (with Latin inscriptions) reused at the base of the minaret, Wall and windows of the south facade of the minaret, The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. Peu de temps après sa construction, la mosquée est détruite vers 690. The upper edge of the minbar ramp is adorned with a rich and graceful vegetal decoration composed of alternately arranged foliated scrolls, each one containing a spread vine-leaf and a cluster of grapes. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[53][54] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Thus, the mosque, headquarters of a prestigious university with a large library containing a large number of scientific and theological works, was the most remarkable intellectual and cultural centre in North Africa during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries. The latter, which its hemispherical cap is cut by 24 concave grooves radiating around the top,[75] is based on ridged horns shaped shell and a drum pierced by eight circular windows which are inserted between sixteen niches grouped by two. [48] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD. 45, n°1, pages 103 and 105, 2007, Okba Ibn Nafaa Mosque in Kairouan (Mosque of Uqba) website, Panoramic visit of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Sacred Destinations : Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara Mediterranean Heritage), Video of the mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Mosque_of_Kairouan&oldid=995123092, 7th-century establishments in the Umayyad Caliphate, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 10:21. The stories concern mainly the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, and the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration (mihrab, minbar, ceilings, etc.). However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. [82] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today. EVOLUTION ET TRANSFORMATION DE LA MOSQUEE DE KAIRAOUAN Lors de la fondation de Kairouan en 670, le général et conquérant arabe Oqba Ibn Nafi (luimême fondateur de la ville) choisit l’emplacement de sa mosquée au centre de la cité, à proximité du siège du gouverneur. The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. [43] Overall, the proportions and general layout of the façade of the south portico, with its thirteen arches of which that in the middle constitutes a sort of triumphal arch crowned with a cupola, form an ensemble with "a powerful air of majesty", according to the French historian and sociologist Paul Sebag (1919–2004). [44], View of the courtyard on the side of the prayer hall facade, Porch topped with a ribbed dome rising in the middle of the south portico of the courtyard, Courtyard seen from one of the arched galleries, Portico located on the eastern side of the courtyard, Interior view of the eastern portico of the courtyard, Interior view of the western portico of the courtyard. During this period, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was both a place of prayer and a centre for teaching Islamic sciences under the Maliki current. [89], In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. [13][14], At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi (himself the founder of the city) chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. La grande mosquée de Kairouan se trouve à Kairouan, en Tunisie.Elle a été bâtie dans la seconde moitié du VIIe siècle par Obka ibn Nafi, le fondateur de la ville.Elle a été reconstruite au IX e siècle pendant la dynastie aghlabide.. For all these reasons, the mosque which once occupied the center of the medina when first built in 670 is now on the easternmost quarter abutting the city walls. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. The main minaret is centered on the north. [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. La Grandes Mosquée de Damas Construction et description Dans les régions du Proche - Orient et du Maghreb conquises après la mort de Mahomet, les Arabes occupent des villes anciennes ou fondent des villes nouvelles destinées aux garnisons de soldats. Nous le remercions gentiment en continuant notre route. The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. Mais ils furent contraints de céder et Kairouan devint capitale. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed[15] during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. Cour de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan 1 photographic print. In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. He then made the mihrab. [17] During this expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. Covered with a thick coating completely painted, the concavity of the arch is decorated with intertwined scrolls enveloping stylised five-lobed vine leaves, three-lobed florets and sharp clusters, all in yellow on midnight blue background.[81]. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages. Fondée en même temps que la ville de Kairouan par les conquérants (ghuzât) musulmans, en l’an 50 de l’Hégire (670 ap. [84] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab. It is surrounded at its upper part by 139 lusterware tiles (with a metallic sheen), each one is 21.1 centimetres square and they are arranged on the diagonal in a chessboard pattern. [24] Around 862–863, Emir Abu Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. Son plan copie celui de la maison de Mahomet à Médine.. Elle comprend différentes parties : [42] The great central arch of the south portico, is flanked on each side by six rhythmically arranged horseshoe arches, which fall on twin columns backed by pillars. Imp… Bien que la représentation figurée ne soit pas interdite dans le Coran, elle ne trouve pas sa place dans les mosquées1. The minaret served as a watchtower, as well as to call the faithful to prayer. These polycandelons, now scattered in various Tunisian museums including Raqqada, consist of three chains supporting a perforated brass plate, which has a central circular ring around which radiate 18 equidistant poles connected by many horseshoe arches and equipped for each of two landmarks flared. [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. [51], The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret. " Coupole et plafonds de la grande mosquée de Kairouan " " Coupole et Plafonos de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan " " Coupole et plafonds de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan " [66] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylised vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world. In addition to its spiritual prestige,[3] the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of Islamic architecture,[4][5][6] notable among other things for the first Islamic use of the horseshoe arch. [8] Its role at the time can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages.